The furlough - affecting pilots, crew and airport workers - will last for at least two months, the airline said.
Qantas said it would pay staff until mid-August, after which they could apply for government support payments.
Since June, fresh Covid outbreaks have forced most Australian states to reimpose restrictions.
The highly contagious Delta variant has forced lockdowns in several cities and some state border closures.
The situation is most severe in Sydney. It is seeing about 200 new infections each day, despite being in lockdown since 26 June.