Australian Rugby Union CEO Bill Pulver said the rugby world was in shock after the news.
The Union said Vickerman passed away at his family home in Sydney on Saturday night.
It is understood there were no suspicious circumstances. He leaves behind a wife and two young children.
The giant lock played 63 Tests for the Wallabies in an international Rugby career spanning a decade from 2002-2011.
His final Test appearance was the 2011 Rugby World Cup semi-final against New Zealand in Auckland.