The 6.8 magnitude quake, centred on the town of Sivrice in Elazig province, caused buildings to collapse and sent residents rushing into the street.
Tremors were also felt in neighbouring Syria, Lebanon and Iran.
Earthquakes are common in Turkey - about 17,000 people died in a massive quake in the western city of Izmit in 1999.
Friday's quake struck at about 20:55 local time (17:55 GMT).
According to Turkey's Disaster and Emergency Management Authority (AFAD), there were 60 aftershocks recorded after the earthquake.