concussion

Concussion rates down at Rugby World Cup

The tournament in Japan was the first World Cup to introduce World Rugby's "high tackle framework" - the step-process of decisions referees must consider when analysing a potentially dangerous tackle - which is designed to reduce the risk of head injuries by "changing player behaviour from high-risk upright to lower risk bent-at-the-waist tackles".

In a statement World Rugby said there was a 28% reduction in the overall incidence of concussion and a 37% drop in tackle concussions at the tournament compared with the average figures from elite events two years ago.

Chiefs hooker Liam Polwart retires aged 24 from rugby due to concussion issues

Polwart, 24, announced this morning he woun't take part in next year's Super Rugby season after deciding it wasn't worth the risk.

“It has been a difficult decision to make to leave the game I love," Polwart said.

"It has provided me with plenty of great friendships and some awesome experiences. I have had some on-going issues with concussion, and while I am currently symptom free, I chosen to hang up my boots and not to put myself at further risk.