Comfortable winners of last weekend's reverse fixture in Port Elizabeth, the Springboks were given a helping hand on this occasion as Argentina's Tomas Lavanini was sent off in the 57th minute for a second yellow-card offence.
Pumas number eight Juan Manuel Leguizamon and South Africa full-back Andries Coetzee were also sin-binned in a frenetic encounter.
Coetzee's 10-minute spell off the field gave 14-man Argentina a glimmer of hope as they aimed to overturn a hefty deficit in the final quarter, but the Springboks were not to be denied as they finally claimed a first away Test victory under Allister Coetzee.
Kolisi rounded off classy moves in either half, while Elton Jantjies registered a try, four conversions and two penalties in another impressive outing and Jean-Luc Du Preez rounded off the scoring late on.
Well done on a great win in Salta, bonus point win and 5 in row this year. 41-23. pic.twitter.com/5qhj1jNTbo
— South African Rugby (@Springboks) August 26, 2017
Jantjies made a shaky start, missing two kicks at goal after Emiliano Boffelli's penalty from distance had put Argentina ahead.
However, South Africa's fly-half produced a lovely chip over the top to set up Kolisi's first score, with Jesse Kriel catching the kick before setting his flanker clear.
Argentina pulled level immediately, Ramiro Moyano pouncing to score after South Africa had foolishly allowed the kick-off to bounce.
The Boks were back in front before the break, though, Jantjies darting over to punish repeated infringements from Argentina that culminated in Leguizamon being yellow-carded.
Following a penalty from Juan Martin Hernandez, South Africa strengthened their hold on proceedings as Kolisi again linked effectively with Kriel to finish a swift counter-attack started by Jantjies.
The visitors were soon awarded a penalty try as scuffles off the ball preceded the deliberate knock-on that saw Lavanini dismissed.
Tempers flared again after Matias Moroni responded for Argentina, with Coetzee sin-binned for a late tackle and Boffelli duly landing another long-range penalty from the restart.
That reduced South Africa's lead to eight points, but Jantjies added another three before converting Du Preez's 78th-minute try.
Photo Getty Images. Caption: South Africa's Courtnall Skosan evades a tackle against Argentina