It was organised by the community organisation Nunaa a ti'a, with two separate groups walking from either side of Papeete to the square outside the territorial assembly.
The event was attended by nuclear test veterans groups, union members as well as supporters of the mayor of Faaa Oscar Temaru who this month took the public prosecutor Herve Leroy to court over the seizure of his savings.
The case is due in court on Monday where Mr Temaru wants a preliminary ruling on the legality of Mr Leroy's action.
The meeting also attracted opponents of a vast roading project on the southside of Tahiti and people raising their concerns about 5G technology.
Among the banners at display, one quoted the French president Emmanuel Macron who said colonisation was a crime against humanity.
More demonstrations are planned over the next two weeks, including the commemoration of France's first nuclear weapons tests.