Because of Covid restrictions, it will now run from 19 July to 28 August 2022, at the Eventim Apollo, Hammersmith.
Goldberg had been due to star as singer Deloris van Cartier, who hides in a convent, disguised as a nun, after witnessing a murder.
She said: "Sister Act is near and dear to my heart. And I'm disappointed."
Goldberg said: "My producing partners and I will continue to work towards mounting a fantastic production, with an amazing new cast.
"And we look forward to presenting it when it can be done safely for everyone onstage, behind the scenes and in the audience."
Jennifer Saunders was lined up to play the convent's mother superior, whom Goldberg briefly played in the original London production - which opened, at the Palladium, in 2009 - before cancelling her final scheduled appearances for family reasons.
Goldberg made five subsequent appearances, in October 2010, the week prior to the show's closure.
This summer's reopening would have been the first time she had revisited her role from hit films Sister Act and Sister Act 2: Back In The Habit.