Violence erupted in the provincial capital Jayapura and the main Highlands town Wamena on Sunday, an escalation of protests that have gripped the province for weeks.
Indonesia's military says 22 people were killed during riots in Wamena, where students were protesting over a racism allegation.
Government buildings and businesses were torched by large crowds.
The military says four people - including a soldier - were killed in a separate protest by students there.
Seven-hundred and thirty-three people are being held at Papua police headquarters in Jayapura.