The 41-year-old said in a statement he had an operation to alleviate "ongoing pain in his back and leg".
"The surgery went well, and I'm optimistic this will relieve my back spasms and pain," the 14-time major winner announced on his official website.
"When healed, I look forward to getting back to a normal life, playing with my kids, competing in professional golf and living without the pain I have been battling so long."
Woods has not played competitively since withdrawing from the Dubai Desert Classic at the start of February due to back spasms.
He attempted to return in time for the Masters at Augusta National earlier this month, but said his back rehabilitation did not allow him the time to get "tournament ready".
The statement said Woods will now rest for several weeks before beginning therapy and treatment, adding that patients typically return to full activity in around six months.
"After he recovers from surgery, he will gradually begin his rehabilitation until he is completely healed," Dr Richard Guyer, who performed the operation, said:
"Once that's accomplished, his workouts will be geared to allowing him to return to competitive golf."
Photo: Getty Tiger Woods practicing his swing during round two at Torrey Pines.