Jun Wei Yeo was charged with using his political consultancy in America as a front to collect information for Chinese intelligence, US officials say.
Separately, the US said a Chinese researcher accused of hiding her ties to China's military was detained.
China earlier ordered the closure of the US consulate in Chengdu. The move to shut down the diplomatic mission in the south-western city was in response to the US closing China's consulate in Houston.
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said the decision was taken because China was "stealing" intellectual property.
Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Wang Wenbin responded by saying that the US move was based on "a hodgepodge of anti-Chinese lies".
Tensions have been rising between the two nuclear powers over several key issues.
President Donald Trump's administration has clashed repeatedly with Beijing over trade and the coronavirus pandemic, as well as China's imposition of a controversial new security law in Hong Kong.